Soft Furnishing -Making your own cushions – interior designing and tips – home makeover

 SOFT FURNISHINGS

Designing your own cushions

Cushions can be made from scratch, which gives complete freedom of choice in the matter of shape and filling. This will be necessary when cushions are to fit a window seat or follow the shape of a chair seat, but for scatter cushions you can choose from a wide range of ready-made shapes and sizes. Sometimes scatter cushions do need to be custom- made to match the size of a fragment of antique textile, or when making cushions with a theme – children love cat or flower-shaped cushions. The inner covers of cushions arc made of calico, sateen or down-proof cambric, according to the filling that is to go inside.

Feathers have always been the elite filling for cushions and their supreme softness and natural resilience is unchallenged, but feathers can work their way out through some weaves. Fibrous kapok can become lumpy and foam chip fillings are unavoidably so. Lightweight polyester cushion pads have the advantage of being washable, but they do not possess the supple quality of feathers. For thin squab cushions and deeper box or welted ones, choose a foam filling but check that it matches flammability safeguards.

Most furnishing fabrics and even some dress fabrics are suitable for covering scatter cushions, but for chairs or window scats use firm woven cottons or linens, or even fabrics of upholstery weight if they are not too thick. For sheer extravagance, delicate lace or hand-painted cushions are the ultimate accessory.

 SOFT FURNISHINGS MAKING CUSHIONS

Any cushion starts with a cushion pad. To calculate the amount of fabric and work out the pattern for a cushion, measure the pad and plan the main panels of fabric allowing 12 mm seams all round. For shaped cushions, either welted or plain, cut a paper template to fit the area exactly. If the cushion is an unusual shape – for a chair seat or a heart shape, for example – fold the paper in half before cutting it out to ensure it is symmetrical.

COVERING A BLOCK OF FOAM Using calico, cut a top panel and base panel to fit the foam block, allowing 12 mm all round for seams. Cut a strip of fabric for the welt on the straight grain, to fit all around the foam (see below).Join the ends to form a circle and fit it tightly around the foam. Clip into the seam allowances at corners and position the top and base panels in place. Tack together at the seams, leaving an opening in one edge. Remove the pad, stitch seams and press, then turn right side out. Insert the foam pad and slip stitch the opening by hand.

ENVELOPE METHOD This is a quick method suitable for calico covers or simple fabric covers with no piping. Start by measuring around the block of foam, to give the total amount of fabric required to wrap around the block. Add 3 cm seam allowance. Measure the length of the foam block and half-way down the welt at each end. Add 3 cm to give the total width of fabric required. Cut out a single piece of fabric to this measurement. 1 Join the top and bottom edge with a flat seam, leaving a 30cmopening in the center, or setting a zip into the seam if required.

This forms a tube. 2 Slip the tube over the foam pad, wrong side out, and pin a seam at each end. The seam line should be positioned in the center of each end panel, and be slightly shorter than the panel, allowing half the depth of the end panel at each end to make a neat miter. Remove the cover from the foam, tack and stitch the seam, then make short diagonal seams to form a neatly mitered end. Trim away the excess fabric from the seams, turn right side out and press. Replace the foam pad in the cover and stitch up the opening, or close with the zip.

SCATTER CUSHION Cut out the top cushion piece from fabric, allowing 12mm scam allowance all round, and make a paper template from it. Cut the paper across where the zip is to be inserted (about a third of the way down), and spread the pieces 2.5cm apart to allow for the zip. Make a template of this shape and use it to cut the fabric piece for the back. Insert the zip. Apply any decorative trims to the front panel of the cushion. Position the piping or a frill around one cushion piece if required, raw edges together, the piping or frill facing the center of the cushion piece. Tack and stitch in place. 

SOFT FURNISHINGS UPHOLSTERY – Home interior makeover with furnishings and cushions – Tips and guidance

SOFT FURNISHINGS UPHOLSTERY

The elegant curves of a regency cushion or a strong outline of a high-backed dining chair demand tight covering to emphasize their shape. Take in techniques, such as deep buttoning. The whole spectrum of fabric types can be used for upholstery from the heaviest velvet and tweeds and the intermediate weight linens and cottons to more and satin. As fitted upholstery is less easy to clean than removable covers (slipcovers), pastel weaves and prints on a light background will benefit from a stain-resistant finish and fitted arm caps will protect fabric from heavy wear.

Thick, patterned tapestry in rich colors is a practical and decorative alternative. Basic principles In its most basic form, upholstery is a panel of fabric fitted over any tight, calico-covered, padded surface. More advanced upholstery skills take in the fitting and shaping of the padding as well as the application of the top cover. Various combinations of stuffing and padding are used.

The most basic is the padded seat in which a thick layer of foam is cut to fit a seat panel and then held in place and slightly shaped by a tight calico cover, tacked under the edge of the seat panel. Formal chair seats are constructed on a base of webbing stretched across the frame of the seat and covered with a layer of coarse canvas to support traditional padding, usually horsehair and cotton wadding, or modern foam and polyester substitutes.

Upholstery may also contain springs in the seats and arms of chairs and sofas and occasionally in the seats of traditional upright dining or occasional chairs. A drop-in dining chair seat is a good initiation into the skills of upholstery because the work is limited to a small surface. Dining or occasional chairs with fully upholstered backs are a more advanced task. A tight calico cover is seamed or cut and shaped to fit around the back, allowing ease at the seat, before it is tacked in place. 

Decorative trimmings covering fabrics are nailed to the framework of upholstered furniture leaving at least the lower edge visible. Brass-headed furniture tacks can be used as a decorative disguise, following early traditions where nails were used in a variety of complex patterns. Braid or gimp can also be stapled or glued over tack heads, or adopt the more flamboyant historic practice of using fringing around chair edges or footstools and tassels on arm ends and bolsters.
UPHOLSTERY TOOLS

You will need some special tools if you plan to tackle the construction, as well as the finish, of upholstery. Webbing can be stretched more efficiently if you use a webbing stretcher which grips the webbing so you can pull it taut over the frame (or improvise with a block of wood. Use upholstery tacks and a fine hammer to fix the webbing, canvas and calico in place. The horsehair is held in place with large, loose stitches (bridle ties); you will need a heavy, straight or curved upholstery needle to do this. A finer curved needle is useful for slip stitching fabric in place – both the calico cover and the top cover of the chair. 

Sophisticated window dressing in interior designing and decoration

Although they have the appearance of a single fluid drape, the elements are cut separately and assembled at the window on a pelmet (valance) shelf. The swag can be cut on the bias, which gives it a naturally graceful swathe. The amount of fabric required varies enormously between a simple swag and one that hangs in deep voluptuous folds. Companion to the swag are the tails that fall to each side of the window and sometimes at intermediate points when there is more swag.
There is a wealth of tail designs from which to choose: spirals and flutes, asymmetrical tails that fold in from each side, or the more familiar form cut as a modified triangle and folded into a series of staggered pleats that reveal the lining, often in a contrast color and pattern.
SOPHISTICATED
The considerable area of wall above this sash window gives scope for a draped heading that extends well beyond the window frame in upswept swag. Tails overlay pleated curtains that tie back to flank the window seat. A plain white roller blind allows the careful lines of the curtain pleats to remain undisturbed.
ABOVE The molded plaster cornice around this bay has been employed as a decorative pelmet (valance) with swags and tails fixed behind it. Full length curtains hang between each window and end in a hemline cascade.
RIGHT The stunning rhetoric of double curtains takes Jull account of the shape and scale of these tall French windows which are flanked by lower windows on either side. The different heights are strongly maintained by the individual curtain poles from which hang outer curtains of dramatically somber shot silk in laurel and brown.
WINDOW DRESSING HAND SEWING CURTAINS For pleated or draped curtains tailored precisely to your windows, with the pleats or drapes positioned to suit their size and shape, hand-made curtain headings are essential. Particularly’ interesting erlects can be achieved with vertically patterned fabric if you plan the size and spacing of pleats to match pattern repeats across the curtain.
Triple pleats are appropriate when curtains are hung with rings from an exposed wooden or brass pole. By positioning a hook in the back of each pleat, the curtains hang so that the rings match the pleats. Lining and interlining are essential; linings may be made from plain chintz, rather than standard lining fabrics, which will create a flash of color where the tails hang in folds. Extravagant, draped effects require careful sewing.
 The detailed measurements depend on the size of the window and the type of fabric you are using as well as the finished effect you aim to achieve. It may be necessary to experiment so that you can be sure the measurements you plan to use will suit the window and create the effect you want. It is easier and more economical to make pairs of curtains from an exact number of widths of fabric. It also reduces the amount of sewing and pattern matching. Each curtain will require anything from 1 to 3 widths of fabric, unless the windows are unusually small or wide.

 Before you buy the fabric, do all your sums: you have to work out roughly how much fullness you need, decide on the number of widths of fabric, and then multiply that number by the total length required for each drop of fabric (including hem and turning allowances, and pattern matching). Then work out the precise spacing allowance (and the space between the end pleats and the edge of the curtain) before making up the curtain. 

MAKING SPECIAL HEADINGS SHOWER CURTAINS – INTERIOR DESIGNING AND DECORATION TIPS AND GUIDANCE

MAKING SPECIAL HEADINGS SHOWER CURTAINS

 Decide on a suitable fullness for the curtain – say 1 times. Allow 5 cm for 4 cm double hems down each side edge and the same for a 4cm double hem across the lower edge. Include a 12 mm seam allowance across the top edge. Cut waterproof fabric to the same dimensions. When stitching plastic, a layer of tissue paper on top of the fabric helps prevent the needle sticking. Turn under 2 cm double hems down the sides and a 4cm double hem across lower edges and stitch, mitring corners. Position the lining on the fabric with wrong sides together, and stitch, positioning the seam 12 mm from the top raw edge. 

Turn the curtain right side out and finger press the seam. Stitch a casing the diameter of the shower rod, positioning the first row of stitching 12 mm from the top edge. Another simple method is to sew rings to the top of the hemmed shower curtain. Place rings about every 10 cm and sew firmly. The rings then slide on to the shower rod. 

SOFT FURNISHINGS CUSHIONS

Cushions, though small, have the potential to pull a scheme together with accents of pattern or color. The easy charm of printed linen or chintz covers responds to the zest of complementary pattern on cushions – perhaps a stripe or diamond motif. Plain chintz or satin weave cushions can be used to pick out and heighten secondary colors in a room, or they can provide a striking contrast. 

Decorative techniques Cushion covers can be decorative in their own right, displaying creative techniques such as patchwork, applique and outline quilting, stenciling or fabric painting. Trimmings give a cushion cover a professional finish: piping in matching or contrasting fabric outlines the shape; flat borders and gathered or pleated frills act as frames; tasseled fringes or heavy silk cording are suitably lavish for velvets, tapestries and brocades.

Themes from the past A profusion of cushions, piled upon a sofa or . window seat, conveys a sense of comfort, even though furniture is now so thoroughly upholstered that cushions are primarily used as accessories. It was not always so. Until the sixteenth century seating had no upholstery and most chairs no back to lean on either. It was the cushion that provided a softer seat; they were the precursors of the flat squab cushion we still tie to kitchen or dining chairs.

Embroidering covers for cushions was one of the accepted occupations for women in noble households, and cushions remain objects for colorful decoration. One of the most popular embroidery effects was crewelwork. Cushions were also covered in velvet or silk damask or in the carpet-like Turkey work. History repeats itself and the pendulum of style has swung back, renewing interest in decorative effects of the past- the embroidered and kelim-covered cushions we see on many sofas today take their brief from earlier fashions. 

How to do window dressing in interior designing and decoration

MAKING PELMETS (VALANCES) the pelmet (valance). Stitch in place, double stitching across the ends. Turn up the hem allowance across the lower edge of the pelmet (valance) and slipstitch in place over the lower edge of the lining. Draw up the heading tape and hang the pelmet (valance) with hooks and screw eyes. For a fringed edge, topstitch bullion fringe along the lower edge. For a frilled edge, after attaching heading tape, stitch the frill to the lower edge of the curtain, with right sides facing and raw edges matching, leaving scam allowances free. Press the frill away from the pelmet (valance), then slipstitch the folded lower edge of the lining to the wrong side of the frill to enclose all raw edges. For a bound edge, make up the pelmet (valance) so that the lower edge of the lining, interlining and main fabric all match.
Bind the edge, using bias-cut binding if the edge is curved.
WINDOW DRESSING SOPHISTICATED HEADINGS
Traditionally, lavish draperies were only used in great houses. They signaled wealth and status for the owner; decoratively they gave presence and visual balance to the lofty height of the window frames. The proportions of a window dressing in relation to the size of a room are critical; dramatic drapes in the context of tall rooms and high windows will always look sumptuous, but in a small room with restrictions on scale, window schemes should be chosen with care. Keep to restrained, classical lines that will not be overwhelming.
 Damasks and silks are ideal fabrics for a formal interior. Tall windows can take a commanding treatment such as swags and tails, or perhaps a festooned heading, full and rich with cascading tails laden with trimmings. A high profile window dressing like this should be used in a context where the color scheme, furniture and accessories are equal to the opulence it provides. But swags and tails can be given a simpler look when the pleating on the swag is restrained rather than generous, the fabric has the cool perfection of heavyweight chintz, and the tails are pressed flat to reveal pleats and lining in geometric progression.
Opulent window treatments can be surprisingly simple to achieve but should be used boldly for a dramatic effect. Dress curtains can act as an ornate facade with inner draw curtains or blinds to provide privacy. Double curtains create a sophisticated effect in tones of the same color or complementary patterns. Hang them together for the magnified effect of luxurious fabric or drape them asymmetrically with tie-backs. Curtains with a long drop can be caught twice as they fall.

Or a single cord set high can reef up curtains in a manner reminiscent of eighteenth-century curtain designs. These schemes are ideal for semi-circular windows, or where curtains cannot be drawn. Even the most spectacular designs are contrived from a standard repertoire of swags and tails, pelmets (valances) and draped headings. The tassels pick strongest co curtain strip. Ground rules have been mastered; most window dressings can be adapted to suit your own personal style. Swags, pelmets (valances) and lambrequins all have the panache to stand alone without curtains, and add a touch of theatre to a window in a hall or landing. 
A stylish heading can also set the mood of the room itself – a Gothic heading or Neo-classical swag will establish a particular ambience. Swags and tails lend authority to imposing windows.

Making a Template in interior designing and decoration – Pelmet- valance

Fit screw eyes around the outer edge of the lower side of a shelf so you can hang the pelmet (valance) from hooks, or stick the hooked side of Velcro (touch and close) fastening around the top of the shelf if you want to fit the pelmet (valance) that way.  
Use 12 mm (1 in) plywood or softwood, at least 10 cm (4 in) wide, and cut it the same width as the curtain track plus either ends for clearance. For a box, screw 10cm(4 in) square pieces of wood [0 each end of the shelf before fixing it in place. Fit screw eyes around the outer edge of the lower side of a shelf so you can hang the “Pellet” (valance) from hooks, or stick the hooked side of Velcro (touch and close) fastening around the [Op of the shelf if you want to fit the pelmet (valance) that way.
MAKING A TEMPLATE
Use a large sheet of paper (lining paper or offcuts of wallpaper are suitable). Trim the paper [0 the length of the pelmet (valance) shelf and fold it in half down the center. Sketch out a shape on the folded paper and cut it out through both layers. Unfold the paper and tape it at the [Op of the window so you can check the effect. Make any necessary adjustments. This is now your pat- tern for cutting out the fabric. If you are making a gathered pelmet (valance), you will have [0 ‘spread’ the shaping to allow for the fullness of the fabric.
Take a second piece of paper to correspond with the finished size of the pelmet (valance) before it is gathered. Take a series of measurements, every 10 elm (4 in) or so, down the length of the first template, and transfer these measurements [0 the new template, spreading them apart ac- cording to the type of heading tape you are using: for example, a pinch-pleated heading takes twice the fullness of fabric, so allow for double the spacing between the measurements.
STIFFENED PELMET (VALANCE) Lock the interlining to the main fabric. Position the stiffening on the interlining and herringbone stitch in place all round. Fold the seam allowance of the main fabric over the stiffening, clipping and notching the seam allowance to reduce bulk and to help it to lie Rat. Turn under the seam allowance on the lining so that the panel is about 12 cm smaller all round than the stiffened front panel. Slipstitch the folded hem of the lining to the seam allowance of the front panel all round. Stitch a row of hooks to the inside of the pelmet (valance), or fit the looped half of the Velcro across the top, to fit it to the shelf.
A straight pelmet (valance) can be attached to the shelf with 12mm U in) tacks and the heads covered with braid or a strip of fabric to match or contrast, glued in place.
GATHERED PELMET (VALANCE) Measure up and calculate fabric in the same way as for lined curtains, reducing the hem allowance to 5cm(2 in) on the fabric and 4 cm (1! in) on the lining. Bear in mind that you are making a single pelmet (valance), rather than a pair of curtains. For frilled pelmets (valances), allow 12 mm (! in) seam allowance along the lower edge, and for a bound finish, omit the seam allowance.
 Lock the interlining to the main fabric and stiffen the heading if required. Turn under the hem allowance on the lining and position the lining on the fabric. Stitch seams at each end. Turn right side out and press so that the main fabric forms even borders at each end of the pelmet (valance).

Turn the heading allowance to the wrong side across the top of the curtain. Turn under a seam allowance at each end of the heading tape, and position it across the top of it.

SOFT FURNISHINGS ARMCHAIRS & SOFAS – Interior furnishing design and tips for the home

MAKING LOOSE COVERS

 SOFT FURNISHINGS ARMCHAIRS & SOFAS

There are so many different styles and finishes for covered furniture that it would be impossible to explain all the steps in making every type of cover, but there are some general principles that you can adapt to suit the particular shape you are covering. 1 If you are using a fabric with a bold pattern, position a motif in the center of each of the main panels of the chair or sofa, on the back or back seat cushion(s), on the center of the seat, the front seat panel and over the top of each arm.

It will be easier to do this if you find and mark the center of the chair to start with, and align each motif as you work. Join the sections of each part of the chair as you fit them, and then join them all together when you have trimmed and finished the seams. The usual order is to start with the inner and outer back sections, shaping darts at the corners or taking tucks to ease fullness on a rounded shape. Then fit the arms, the inner panel to the outer panel first, then the front panel.

Next fit the seat and front panel together at the front of the seat, then fit the sides of the seat to the lower edge of the inner arms, and the ends of the front panel to the front arm panels. Finally, join the arm and seat sections to the back, first along the back of the seat, then over the arms and finally down the outer corners. If it is a wing chair, make up the wing sections first, and then fit them to the inner back panel. Always follow the rules for trimming and clipping into seam allowances, and press and finish each seam as you stitch it. It may be difficult to finish the seams once further sections have been joined.

Where seams cross, taper any piping into the seam allowance, trimming the cord from the piping to reduce bulk so that you can stitch seams across each other. 3 On most styles of sofa, you will have to join widths of fabric to make up the full width of the back, seat and front panels of the cover. Use a full width of fabric down the center of the panel, with narrow strips joined selvedge to selvedge down each side, Slip-tack the seams to ensure any pattern matches.

Allow panels around the sides of the seat and down each back corner to tuck into the cracks between the upholstered sections of the chair or sofa to hold the cover in place. Do not trim the seam allowance from these tuck-ins until you have tacked the cover and are happy with the fit. There are many different shapes for the arms of chairs. For simple, rectangular shapes, there is often a gusset over the top and front of the arm. If you have to join strips to make up the gusset, position the seam at the front angle of the arm. For heavily stuffed, curved shapes, gather the fabric over the head of the arm and fit it to a front panel shaped to match the outline of the arm. 

Around the lower edge of the cover, allow a 20cm turning under the chair. Clip away the fabric to fit around the legs or castors of the chair leaving a 6 mm seam allowance. Then neaten the edge with a strip of fabric cut on the bias. Make a casing all around the lower edge and thread a tape through it to draw the cover tightly under the chair or sofa. 6 Down the opening edge at the back corner(s), allow a wider seam allowance and press the turnings towards the back of the chair. Fit hook-and-eye fastenings or a zip by the overlapped method.

Before fitting a valance, mark the level of the valance on the outside of the cover with chalk or pins, checking it is the same height from the floor all round. For a gathered valance, make up a strip of fabric allowing at least 1    times the measurement around the chair. Neaten the sides and lower edge with a 12 mm wide double hem. Gather the long raw edge. Position the valance on the cover, with right sides facing and the valance lying upwards, so that the seam lines match. Stitch in place, and then press the valance downwards. 8 For a crisp finish on a tailored valance, cut the lower part of the cover off just below the marked height of the valance. 

Make up the valance and re-join the strip you cut off to the seam joining the valance and cover, sandwiching the top raw edge of the valance between the cover and the lower strip with the casing. Stitch together, then layer the seam allow- ances and press them upwards. 

SCALLOPED And FACED HEADINGS in Window dressing in interior designing and decoration

SCALLOPED & FACED HEADINGS

Decide on a suitable fullness – one and a half times the window width is usually sufficient. Allow 4 cm for side hems, a total of 35cm for loops and facing and 10 cms  for hems. Turn under 2 cm double hems down each outer edge and turn under and press a narrow turning across the top edge. Stitch in place. Turn over 25 cm to the right side of the curtain across the top edge to form the loops and facing. Decide on a suitable depth for the scallops and length for the loops, say a total of20cm – and a suitable width for the loops, say 5cm, spaced 10 cm (4in) apart. Make up a paper template and mark the scallop seam line along the top of the curtain. Stitch along the marked seam line, then cut away the fabric from the scallops, layering seam allowances. Turn the facing right side the ends of the loops to the curtain and check for length the hem by hand.

PLEA TED HEAD

Allow extra fullness for this s size and spacing of the pleat allowance is 25 cm (10 in) for F (4 in) for the scallops. Allow seam allowance across the top Include the same side turning allowance. For the lining, al fullness and top turning, but turning allowance and reduce allowance to 6cm. Join if necessary. Turn up and stitch a 4 cm hem across the lower edge Position the lining on the fall facing, with the top of the line top of the curtain. Join side edge towards the center of the CUI With the lining centered use a template to mark across the top of the curtain scallops in place, stitching across curtain 12 mm from between the scallops. Trim ex, the scallops and layer the seam Turn the curtain right side Mark a stitching line. Insert hooks, har check the length. Turn under then 8 cm and stitch the corners.

HEADINGS SCALLOPED & FACED HEADINGS

Decide on a suitable fullness – one and a half times the window width is usually sufficient. Allow 4cm for side hems, a total of 35cm for loops and facing and 10cm for hems. Turn under 2cm double hems down each outer edge and turn under and press a narrow turning across the top edge. Stitch in place. 2 Turn over 25 cm to the right side of the curtain across the top edge to form the loops and facing. Decide on a suitable depth for the scallops and length for the loops, say a total of20 cm – and a suitable width for the loops, say 5 cm, spaced 10 cm apart.

Make up a paper template and mark the scallop seam line along the top of the curtain. Stitch along the marked seam line, then cut away the fabric from the scallops, layering seam allowances. 3 Turn the facing right side out and stitch the ends of the loops to the curtain. Hang the curtain and check for length, then turn up the hem by hand.

PLEATED HEADINGS Allow extra fullness for this style, to suit the size and spacing of the pleats. A suitable allowance is 25 cm for pleats and 10 cm for the scallops. Allow 12 mm seam allowance across the top of the curtain. Include the same side turning and hem allowance. For the lining, allow the same fullness and top turning, but omit the side turning allowance and reduce the hem allowance to 6 cm. Join widths of fabric if necessary.  Turn up and stitch a 4 cm double hem across the lower edge of the lining. Position the lining on the fabric, right sides facing, with the top of the lining matching the top of the curtain. Join side edges.

 Press seams towards the center of the curtain.

With the lining centered on the curtain, use a template to mark the seam line across the top of the curtain and stitch the scallops in place, stitching across the top of the curtain 12 mm from the raw edges between the scallops. Trim excess fabric from the scallops and layer the seam allowance. Turn the curtain right side out and press. Mark a stitching line and form pleats. Insert hooks, hang curtains and check the length. Turn under 2cm and then 8cm(3 in) and stitch the hem, mitring corners. 

A SKIRT WITH INVERTED PLEATS – Interior Cushion ideas and tips for the home interiors

 A SKIRT WITH INVERTED PLEATS

 This method of measuring and folding pleats in a skirt gives a crisp finish. It can be used on a simple arm less chair, with pleats falling from each corner of the seat to the floor, or on a skirt around the lower edge of an easy chair or sofa. There is no need to hem the bottom as the fabric is doubled. Cut a strip of fabric for each side of the skirt, adding 11 cm at each end for the pleat and scam allowances. The fabric should be twice the depth of the finished skirt, plus a 2.5cm seam allowance. 

For three of the corners, cut an underlay of fabric 22 cm wide, and the same depth as the main part of the skirt. For the corner where the opening is to be, make the underlay from two separate panels, allowing an extra seam allowance where the fastening is to be attached. Fold the side panels in half along the line of the hem, wrong sides together, and press. Repeat for the underlays.

Turn under and press the 11 cm turnings at each end of the side strips. But the folded edges of the side panels together, and position the turnings over the underlays, so that raw edges match. Pin and stitch the raw edges together, taking 12 mm scams, and trim seam allowances. Neaten raw edges together. Leave one seam not stitched at the corner where the opening is positioned.

Tack across the top of the pleats. Fit the skirt around the lower edge of the scat panel or cover, and stitch in place. Layer the seam allowances and press them upwards. Fit the zip or hook-and-eye tape down the opening. On a simple arm less chair, continue the fastening down the opening in the skirt. On an easy chair or sofa with an applied, short skirt, fit the fastening to the main part of the chair, and turn under and neaten the allowances down the center of the corner pleat. 

Frills in interior designing and decoration to make the fabrics looks beatiful

FRILLED TIE-BACKS
Cut a strip of fabric for the tie-back, twice the finished width, and allow 12 mm (1 in) turning all round. Make up a gathered frill to match the lower edge of the tie-back. Cut interfacing the same size as the finished tie-back. Fold the strip for the band in half along its length and mark the fold line. Interface one half of the band, matching the top edge of interfacing to the fold line.
 Fit the gathered frill to the raw edge of the band, below the interfacing, and stitch in place, distributing fullness evenly. 2 Fold the band in half along the fold line, right sides together. Stitch at each end. Trim seam allowances, press and turn right side out, pushing out corners for a crisp finish. Turn under the seam allowance along the back of the band, and slipstitch to the frill.
MAKING WINDOW DRESSING MAKING PELMETS (VALANCES) Pelmets (valances) should be fitted to a shelf or box above the window. Once the shelf is up, you can plan the shape using a large sheet of paper to make a template. The pelmet (valance) must be deep enough to cover the curtain tracks and headings and should be up to one-sixth of the depth of the window.
To add fullness without cutting out light, gathered pelmets (valances) are often shaped to drape up to halfway down each side of the window. For stiffened pellets (valances), cut the main fabric 5 cm (2 in) larger all round than the template, and cut the lining, interlining and stiff buckram the same size as the template. For gathered pellets (valances), calculate the finished (un-gathered) width according to the type of heading tape used.
As for curtains, use an exact number of widths of fabric to save wastage. Allow 10cm (4in) for the top turning and 5 cm (2 in) for the hem, cut interlining to the finished size of the pelmet (valance) and a strip of interfacing for the heading the same size as the finished width if required. Cut the lining the same size as the main fabric, reducing the top turning and hem to 4 cm (1    in). You will also need heading tape to gather the fabric. Heavy bullion fringing can be added along the lower edge.
For a bound edge, omit any seam allowance along the lower edge of the pelmet (valance) and lining. For a frill, allow a 15 mm seam allowance along the lower edge of the fabric and the lining.
FITTING THE SHELF Decide on the position for the shelf; you can either fit it close to the architrave around the window, or across the front of the opening of a recessed window, or make it wider and fit it well above the window to make the window look larger. Remember that the curtain itself will hang inside the box, so make sure there is room for the curtains to stack back on either side of the window where necessary. Fit the shelf with angle irons, or screw it 104 directly to a wooden window surround if there is room. Use 12 mm (in) plywood or softwood, and cut it the same width as the curtain track plus 5cm(2 in) either end for clearance. For a box, screw 10 cm (4 in) square pieces of wood to each end of the shelf before fixing it in place.

MAKING A TEMF Use a large sheet of paper (I offcuts of wallpaper are suited a paper to the length of the p shelf and fold it in half down the out a shape on the folded paper through both layers. Unfold the paper and tape it window so you can check the e necessary adjustments. This is the term for cutting out the fabric. If you are making a gather), you will have to ‘spread allow for the fullness of the second piece of paper to collect finished size of the pelmet (gathered. Take a series of measures 10 cm (4 in) or so, down the template, and transfer these to the new template, spreading cording to the type of heading using: for example, a pinch-j takes twice the fullness of f for double the spacing measurements.