Interior Construction Fit Outs in interior desiging

Interior Construction Fit Outs

Acoustic enclosures are used to control sound and noise create echo or vibration. The term interior construction fit outs used with reference to a building construction describes the different activities and processes involved in making the premises fit for occupation for the purpose for which it was designed. In this context it may refer to the development of office buildings wherein the developer hands over the premises after the basic and it becomes the responsibility of the occupant to complete the interiors and other related works. The premises concerned will generally be taken on lease by the occupant from the developer or the owner as the case may be.

Getting the building ready for Fit Outs

Interior construction fit outs with acoustic enclosures details will depend upon at what stage the building is at the time of handing over by the developer to the occupant and the specifications for the fit out and acoustic enclosures will also depend upon the requirements of the occupant. Normally the developer would have completed the structure, the cladding, common areas, and external works like roads, lighting, pavements, fencing, outer walls, drainage systems, landscaping, mechanical, and electrical systems to plant rooms, including transformers, water supply etc. Air circulation and air conditioning plants would have been installed.

Acoustic enclosures

acoustic enclosures are used to control sound and noise from the room.

Main Interior Fit Out

Interior construction fit outs and acoustic enclosures in the allotted space of the occupant completed by the developer and the level to which it is done are considered. Though this cannot be defined clearly, the following are some examples:
False ceilings supported from roof, and floors at raised levels.
Installation of electrical and mechanical equipment.
Finishing of interior surfaces like walls, doors windows and blinds.

Secondary Interior fit out

Final finishes to the office spaces are to be carried out with acoustic enclosures. Conference rooms, board rooms, and other special facilities are set up. This will also include special lighting facilities, audio visual equipment, computer cubicles, office cabins, reception lounge, furniture installation, canteen, and kitchen areas.
Some of the fit outs and acoustic enclosures may have to be done in coordination with the developer even before handing over in order to avoid waste of time and money. Examples are main reception, staircases, lobbies, lift shafts, toilets, basements, car parking, loading bays, and so on. Some occupants may have very complex fit out requirements which may affect the main fit out. Even if it means that some money has to be spent at this stage it will go a long way in saving wasted time and money to be spent at a later stage for modifying work already done earlier. So a detailed discussion between the developer and the occupant will help to sort out issues pertaining to interior construction fit outs.

Fiber Cement Board Siding
Fiber cement board siding is a building material used for covering the outside of a building in both domestic and commercial applications. Fiber cement is a composite material made of cement, sand, and cellulose fibers. It has a wide range of styles and colors resembling conventional siding materials mainly cedar shingles, stucco, and wood clapboards. The cost of fiber cement siding is little more than vinyl siding but less than stucco. It lasts longer than its competitors by decades because it withstands many common hazards, including wind, fire, rain, and insects. Fiber cement board siding can be used in all climates, but is ideal for hot, humid regions. Regardless of its wetness it won’t rot. Because it is made up sand and cement it’s resistant to termites. Due to its durability fiber cement siding reduces maintenance costs and it’s unlikely to end up in landfills in comparison to conventional siding. It is an inert material that, if finally sent to a landfill, should not cause danger to the environment.
Benefits of Fiber Cement Board Siding
1. The Design Versatility. While purchasing fiber cement sidings you can choose from many different textures. Color matching can also be done if you want. Besides its appearance, it is available is different sizes and shapes.
2. Dimensional Tolerances and Stability. You can rely on the quality of the products and dimensional stability. Its fire rating is class A and the texture and color does not fade or warp.
3. Warranty benefits. The paint of Fiber cement sidings remains fresh in an average expectation of 7 to 15 years.
4. Painting. Before the purchase fiber cement sidings are usually primed in the factory. After installation the fiber siding is then protected from moisture entering it with finally coating it with exterior paint.
5. Installed Cost. The installation cost of fiber sidings is lesser than installation for cedar, natural stone, hardboard siding, and wood siding.
Usage of Fiber Cement Board Siding
Fiber cement board siding is mostly made of overlapping horizontal boards imitating clapboard, wooden siding, and imitation shingles. It is also made in a sheet form and not only used as cladding but also usually used as a softit / eave lining and is placed under tiles in bathrooms and on decks. Not only can fiber cement board siding be used as an outside siding, it also can be used instead of bargeboards and timber fascias in high fire areas.
Tips for better Fiber Cement Siding Installation
Follow the instructions of your fiber cement manufacturer, prepare the wall surface properly before installing fiber cement board siding, use the recommended materials and tools, for leveling the wall use a siding insulation product and align each fiber cement board siding panel, and apply any finishing materials.
Mass Loaded Vinyl Barrier

Mass Loaded Vinyl (MLV) Barrier is heavy, yet flexible, and thin making it a perfect soundproofing material for particular kinds of applications. MLV is a flexible product that is heavy in weight and it prevents sound from entering. For most modern products the weight is due to calcium silicate, although barium sulfate is also still in use. MLV is a limp-mass material used for blocking unwanted noise and reducing sound transmission without reduction in space. It is made of non-reinforced vinyl at high temperature with no lead fillers. This material has a weight equivalent to lead, yet is safe and can be cut easily with a utility knife. Initially MLV was developed as a non-toxic option to lead lined materials. In industrial settings they prevent sound. Then through marketing other possible uses for the material were found. Presently there are many products sold under the MLV name.
Advantages of Mass Loaded Vinyl Barrier
Mass Loaded Vinyl Barrier controls noise, reduces sound transmission, improves communications, and improves health and safety. When you need to effectively control noise and sound transmission, Mass Loaded Vinyl Noise Barrier can be used to build soundproof and noise barriers walls. MLV is mainly used for soundproofing applications due to its thinness and flexibility. It can be screwed, stapled, nailed, or hung (using grommets and reinforcement). A 1/8 inch thick MLV sheet has a weight of about 1 pound per square foot. It’s twice more than the mass of a drywall of equal thickness. For your soundproofing project if space is important, MLV offers a solution. For soundproofing mass, drywall is the classic source. It comes in rigid panels. In contrast MLV is useful in situations where a flexible sound barrier is needed such as a wrapper around pipes.
Applications of Mass Loaded Vinyl Barrier
The applications of Mass Loaded Vinyl Barrier are to create a sound screen around noisy machinery, turn dish washers into stealth washers, block vibrations in vehicles and road noise, improve sound and increase bass in your car, making HVAC ductwork and pipes soundproof, eliminate leakage of noise around windows and doors in a home studio, and add a sound deadening layer above suspended ceilings.
Choices of Mass Loaded Vinyl Barrier
In purchasing mass loaded vinyl, you have to mainly decide what thickness you want. The commonly used thicknesses are 1/8 inch and 1/4 inch. Sheets of 1/16 inch are also available. The thickness you choose will be dependent on your soundproofing requirements, space limitations, and your budget. A variety of additional options are offered by few MLV suppliers like color selection, peel-and-stick adhesive backing, addition of a foam layer, and enhanced flexibility. Many suppliers offer generic MLV which is cheaper than the name-brand products, and still providing the main elements making mass loaded vinyl barrier a good choice for the right applications.

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Bathroom fittings and Tiles for Bathroom to associate with each other to make the interior designing and decoration successful

Bathroom fittings and Tiles for Bathroom to associate with each other to make the interior designing and decoration successful

As for bathroom fittings, remember that many of these, particularly for bathrooms, can be bought integrated with a tile. If you do have to drill to make a fixing, there is a simple technique for avoiding the risk of cracking the tile. If you are planning a room from scratch, or building partition walls, ledges, or recesses in an existing room, take the size of tiles to be used into consideration from the outset to avoid too much tile cutting and shaping later on. Below Bathroom accessories finish off a room and are important decorative items. All of these can be drilled and fixed easily to tiled walls and other surfaces using the technique shown opposite. Tiling round corners, doors, windows, and fixture to Finish external corners with edging tiles, equally cut. With patterned tiles, it is better to use whole glazed• edged tiles and work away to where a cut tile and a pattern break are less obvious. e Internal corners should, wherever possible, be completed with tiles cut to equal size. With patterned tiles, use the off cuts from tiling one wall to begin the next. This maintains the continuity of  the pattern.
The door into a room is very much a focal point, so try to maintain a visual balance by tiling round it evenly, using whole tiles. The door frame may not be vertical, so don’t use it as a guide for your tiling rows unless is completely true. A window is an import: focal point in a wall. For symmetry, position the tile within the recess either sic of the exact center line, a tool can make the tiling of the wall as a whole correspond. Try to tile round wash basins and other fixtures in a symmetrical fashion. Ideally, plan to use a row of whole tiles above fixtures, since cut tiles can look untidy.
Where this is impossible, be sure to fill any gaps with good-quality waterproof sealer. In bathrooms, light fittings must be fitted with a cord pull. To produce a neat finish Tiling a recess Planning the work carefully in advance is one of the secrets of making a good job of tiling a room, taking into account such architectural features as recesses. For a professional appearance, ensure that the tiles are “balanced” across a window recess – in other words, that the cut tiles either side of the recess are in symmetry. Tiles on external corners must have glazed edges. Drilling The problem with drilling into ceramic tiles is penetrating the glaze without the drill tip skating over the surface. Use a pointed tile bit or a sharp masonry bit. Don’t, however, drill right through the tile into stone or brick with a tile bit.
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How to Fix the Tiles in Interior Walls and other Bathroom Walls?

Tiling work in interior designing and decoration

It consists of a number of I needles or strips of plastic held in a frame. When pressed against a shaped surface, the tool takes up its exact shape, which you can then transfer to a tile by following the outline I with a china graph pencil. Starting on the window wall, look for the pencil mark representing the first full tile above floor level, and position a bat- ten there. Check the batten is horizontal with a spirit level, then secure it to the wall with masonry nails. Position a vertical batten at the outer edge of the first row of full tiles from the corner. Check the batten is vertical and secure it.

Fixing the tiles in interior designing and decoration on walls

Starting at the batten, apply tile adhesive to the wall with the notched spreader, covering about 1 sq m yard at a time. The spreader should leave a layer about 3 mm thick. Lift away any surplus adhesive. If you find it easier, you can apply the adhesive to the wall with a small trowel, and then use the notched spreader to get the correct thickness.

  • Place your first tile against the wall on the inside corner of the batten, pressing it firmly in place. Try not to slide the tiles into position, since this forces adhesive up onto the tile edge. With the first tile in place, insert a cross-shaped spacer at the top corner and position your next tile alongside so that it sits tightly against the spacer. Continue tiling until the horizontal run is complete. You can leave cut tiles until later, completing all full tiling in an area of wall first.
  • Materials and equipment
  • Chinagraph pencil and steel rule
  • Wood for batten, hammer, and nails
  • Spirit level
  • Tile adhesive and notched spreader
  • Tungsten-tipped cutting stylus
  • Platform cutter
  • Tile saw
  • Pincers or pliers
  • Profile gauge
  • Tile grout and spacers
  • Polishing cloth Grouting
  • If the grout is in powder form, mix it to a thick paste according to its instructions.

Grout from a tub is ready-mixed. Force the grout into the gaps between the tiles, making sure no holes are left. e Wipe away surplus from the tile surface, then smooth the grout with the special grouting tool supplied with tiling kits. Alternatively, make use of an item such as a pen top. Allow the grout to dry, then rub the surface of the tile with a cloth. This removes surplus grout and polishes the tiles at the same time. Awkward spots and fittings quipped with good-quality tile cutters and a degree of patience, tiling around tricky shapes and into recesses should be a reasonably straightforward task – provided that you plan for it carefully in advance.
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Tiles and Wood usage with tools and materials in interior designing and decoration

Fire place usage of Wood and Tiles

Variations in the firing process can mean that batches of tiles differ slightly in appearance. Tiles commonly come in boxes of 25 or 50, or in packs to cover, say, one square meter. Included will be tiles for both main body tiling lazed edges and for external corners finished edges. Before ordering, work out how many edging tiles are needed, and check there are enough in the pack or box.
Tools and materials
You will need a tile cutter, a spirit level with a vertical vial, a steel rule, a few long, straight timber battens, a serrated adhesive spreader usually supplied with the adhesive, tile clippers or pincers, a sponge, and a soft cloth. Basic tiling materials are spacers, if needed for matches will do), plus adhesive and grout. For condensation-prone areas, or those areas that will get regular soakings – as in a shower enclosure or splash back – use water- resistant adhesive and a good-quality waterproof grout.
Above Patterned tiles can be used to create an overall design or interspersed among plain background tiles to become random feature tiles.
Cutting and fixing – The principal fact to remember about ceramic tiles is that they are brittle. This means that once you have introduced a line of weakness, by scoring a straight line in the tile, for example, it can be relatively easily snapped. More problematic, how- ever, is shaping a tile to fit around a pipe or the edge of a basin. Here, it is best to nibble away at the tile until you have the shape you need. When marking tiles for cutting, never use a felt pen on the tile’s re- verse side. The ink may soak through the tile and appear as a stain under the glaze where you cannot reach it. Marking up o To help you position your tiles, mark a long, straight batten with tile widths along its length to act as a gauge stick, allowing gaps for grouting.

Preparing Wood in Interior designing and decoration

Fill any cracks or holes in the wood with a wood-stopping material before applying the stain. The final finish may be of a type that gives a surface film, such as French polish, varnish, or polyurethane. The latter two are available in gloss, satin, and Matt finishes. Varnish stains are also available. These are convenient, since they will color and finish the wood in a single operation. Do bear in mind that each extra coat of varnish stain will darken the color of the wood and, unless brushed out very evenly, the color will vary with the thickness of the film. When wood is stained with a penetrating dye, the color will not vary _ no matter how many coats of clear finish you later apply. Don’t neglect to treat areas of woodwork that are normally out of sight. For example, when varnishing an external door, it is important that at least one coat is applied to the top and bottom edges, otherwise water may penetrate at these points and eventually cause the varnish to fail.
Interior game provide training and services in interior designing and decoration. How to treat wood and varnish as well as painting and tiles in the interior designing and decoration? Want to know the tricks and methods of interior designing and decoration call us for a free consultation about your plans and the places.

Painting and Oil Finishes in Wood in Interior designing and decoration

Painting Oil finishes

Oiled finishes, such as teak oil and Danish oil, are a useful alternative to finishes mentioned above. They are also easier to apply than polyurethane and varnish. On new wood, you will need to apply two coats, either with a brush or a mildly abrasive pad, cleaning off excess oil with a cloth. Teak oil and Danish oil leave the wood with a soft, lustrous finish that is truly resistant to liquids. When a high-gloss finish is required on exterior woodwork, consider using a yacht varnish. This usually contains teak oil, which has outstanding exterior durability.

Selection of dyes on sycamore

1. Ash grey
2. Medium oak
3. Light oak
4. Walnut
5. Bright green
6. Apricot
7. Deep mahogany 0
8. Mulberry blue
9. Antique pine


This is popular for treating newly stripped pine. Some waxes color the wood a little – improving the bleached-out look of pine that has been immersed in a caustic solution, and giving the surface an “antiqued” appearance.
If you don’t wish to alter the look of the pine, make sure the wax you buy is colorless. Always rub the wood down first with a fine-grade of steel wool. If the wax is applied with a soft cloth, it will produce a natural satin finish. If you want a higher gloss, however, allow the new wax to dry completely and then buff it vigorously with a soft duster or clean, soft shoe brush. Right When stained to produce the right color and then treated with a protective top coat of varnish, the true beauty of natural wood is unsurpassed.

French polishing

This traditional form of wood treatment produces a rich, deep, lustrous finish, and is often applied to fine furniture. However, applying French polish is a skilled task for which you will need energy, patience, and a willingness to follow the instructions supplied. As a basic guide, use this sequence of steps. o To charge the fad, remove the cloth and saturate the wadding with polish.
Replace the cloth and squeeze until the polish oozes through. • Rub the fad along the grain with a minimum of pressure, overlapping each stroke. Too much pressure will force out too much polish and leave the surface sticky. • Leave the polish to dry for 10 minutes and smooth the surface with abrasive paper. • After that, work the fad in a flowing, circular movement. Finally, work along the grain of the wood once more, overlapping each stroke. If the wood is paneled, use the fad’s nose to work the polish into the corners. Use the fad’s nose in the same fashion when polishing a carved wooden surface or when dealing with any awkward crevices.
Dust the surface to remove any grit and then fill the fad with polish again . Now work the fad along the grain of all the surface, overlapping each stroke. Next, work the fad in a series of figures of eight . Fabrics decorating your home involves far more than selecting the most pleasing combination of wall and floor coverings. By incorporating fabricscurtains, blinds, furniture covers, and cushions – you can change the decor from plain, drab and lifeless to one that has softness, warmth, and vitality. Fabrics are available in an enormous range of colors, patterns, textures, and weights. They vary from fine to coarse weave, shiny to rough surfaced, flimsy to heavyweight. Each is best suited to a particular range of uses and creates its own special effects.
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Painting Finish of the wood is an extremely important factor in interior designing and decoration

Painting the Wood and Finish in interior designing and decoration 

The finish of the wood is an extremely important factor. Although painting would hide any slight surface defects, any blemish in wood is immediately accentuated when a clear finish, or a stain followed by clear finish, is applied. It is important, therefore, that all woodwork is clean and smooth before decorating work begins. When a clear finish is to be applied, it is essential that you give the surface a final sanding by hand, following the grain of the wood. If an orbital electric sander has been used at any stage, small circular scratches, resembling fish scales, will be seen in the final coat.

Finishes and their effects

1 Matt polyurethane varnish
2 Tung oil
3 Patina-ting
4 Yellow acrylic stain
5 Gloss polyurethane varnish
6 Liming paste
7 Staining varnish.

Non-pigmented finishes

All finishes alter the color of wood to some extent, and some woods – mahogany and walnut, for example – turn much darker even when a completely clear finish is applied. An approximate idea of the color wood will take on when treated with a clear finish can be seen by dampening a small area with ordinary water. If this color is too light for your needs, then the wood can be stained before finishing. It is only possible to stain wood to a darker color; for a lighter shade it must be bleached. When staining wood, it is advisable to test the stain on an off-cut, or on an area that would normally be out of sight. It is notoriously difficult to remove stain, even immediately after it has been applied. If the wood has an open grain, and a smooth finish is required, then you will need to use a grain-filler to fill the pores . The alternative is to apply extra coats of the finish, rubbing down with an abrasive paper between coats.
Fill any cracks or holes in the wood with a wood-stopping material before applying the stain. The final finish may be of a type that gives a surface film, such as French polish, varnish, or polyurethane. The latter two are available in gloss, satin, and Matt finishes. Varnish stains are also available. These are convenient, since they will color and finish the wood in a single operation. Do bear in mind that each extra coat of varnish stain will darken the color of the wood and, unless brushed out very evenly, the color will vary with the thickness of the film. When wood is stained with a penetrating dye, the color will not vary _ no matter how many coats of clear finish you later apply. Don’t neglect to treat areas of woodwork that are normally out of sight. For example, when varnishing an external door, it is important that at least one coat is applied to the top and bottom edges, otherwise water may penetrate at these points and eventually cause the varnish to fail.
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Bathroom Interiors using Mirror Tiles and Mosaics for Convenience in Interior designing and decoration

Bathroom Interiors using Mirror Tiles and Mosaics

Mirror tiles Convenient for bathroom use, mirror tiles are usually supplied with self-adhesive pads or strips attached to their reverse side. If you intend to fix more than one, bear in mind that any unevenness of the supporting surface behind may well cause the faces of the tiles to produce some very distorted reflections. Unless walls are perfect, it may be preferable to fix a sheet of plywood backing to the wall first, and then stick the mirror tiles to it for a completely distortion-free finish.

Quarry tiles and mosaics

Although equally hard-wearing as ceramic tiles, and requiring similar fixing techniques, quarry tiles are un-glazed and have more of a casual, country appearance – a look that is emphasized by their predominantly earthy coloration. Quarry tiles contain a high proportion of quartz and are not particularly porous, which makes them a suitable choice for kitchens. There may be slight natural color variations in quarry tiles, even in those from the same batch – a fact you can exploit when planning a color scheme. Small quarry tiles in a variety of shapes are also available, and these are suitable for creating mosaic patterns. If left untreated quarry tiles have a Matt appearance.
If you want to produce more of a shiny finish, then you need to treat them with linseed oil and turpentine. Right Quarry tiles are a natural accompaniment for wood III a country-style kitchen. Below A mosaic splash back made from water-worn pebbles. Ceiling tiles Made from a variety of synthetic materials, ceiling tiles can add interesting textural qualities to a ceiling. These tiles are also a useful means of disguising a ceiling that is in poor condition. Expanded polystyrene tiles are the most common for domestic use, and are usually 30 cm or 60 cm square with chambered edges. They should be fixed with special tile adhesive, which must be spread over the whole ceiling.
Don’t use the “five-blob” method of fixing – in a fire, tiles melt away from the glue and drop from the ceiling. Modern tiles are self-extinguishing grade (5 X), so they are not a great fire risk. To calculate how many tiles you need, divide the squared area of one tile into the squared ceiling area. It is best to find the center of a room, as with floor tiling, and tile out from a center point. However, if there is a true, straight wall at the entrance to the room you could start there and work away. Fibrous tiles and gypsum plaster tiles are also available for ceiling work, but since they are much heavier they must be pinned to battens screwed to the ceiling. Find out which way the ceiling joists run and fix the battens at right angles, spaced so that the ceiling tiles meet at their centers.
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Cork Wall Tiles Vs Ceramic Wall Tiles to decorate walls in interior designing and decoration

Cork Wall Tiles Vs Ceramic Wall Tiles

To emphasize texture, use oblique lighting, which throws the hollows into shadow and highlights the peaks. Below Cork tiles make a warm, decorative coloring for bathrooms and other rooms, and they do much to camouflage poor wall surfaces.
Cork wall tiles
Most people think of wall tiles as being of the glazed ceramic variety, but for a textured finish to a room there are other types, such as cork. Cork tiles, as well as a being a popular choice as a floor covering, also make a decorative surface in bathrooms, where they contribute to insulation and warmth; in offices and children’s rooms, where they can double as pin boards; and in other rooms where they are used simply as a decorative device. Cork tiles are most commonly 30 cm square and about 3 mm thick. The type suitable as a wall covering are usually untreated, whereas flooring-quality types are sealed.
Always use the adhesive recommended by the tile manufacturer. Contact adhesives are applied both to the wall and to the back of the tile, while cork adhesive is spread only on the wall. It is important that the wall should be clean and free of grease.
Natural cork is difficult to clean, so consider treating the tiles with a clear for, if you wish, colored) polyurethane sealer in a room where frequent cleaning may be necessary. • When tiling into corners, cut the last tile by holding a tile over the last whole fixed one. Then take another tile and place it over the two, but reaching right into the corner.
Mark a line along the edge of the top tile onto the surface of the middle one and cut along it with a craft knife to give a perfect fit.
Battens for fixing fibrous tiles to a ceiling need to be screwed into each joist to support the combined weight of the tiles. Above Mirror tiles are perfect in a bathroom, but the supporting wall must be perfectly flat. Don’t worry if the surface is uneven as long as it is reasonably firm – cork tiles are very forgiving and do an excellent job of camouflaging rough surfaces, With the aid of a plumb line and spirit level, mark vertical and horizontal starting lines for the tiling work. Even though cork tiles abut closely and do not show obvious joins, it is still worth applying the same principles of good procedure as you would when fixing ceramic tiles, so that cut tiles at either end of a wall are in symmetry.
Mirror tiles Convenient for bathroom use, mirror tiles are usually supplied with self-adhesive pads or strips attached to their reverse side. If you intend to fix more than one, bear in mind that any unevenness of the supporting surface behind may well cause the faces of the tiles to produce some very distorted reflections. Unless walls are perfect, it may be preferable to fix a sheet of plywood backing to the wall first, and then stick the mirror tiles to it for a completely distortion-free finish.

Quarry tiles and mosaics

Although equally hard wearing as ceramic tiles, and requiring similar fixing techniques, quarry tiles are unglazed and have more of a casual, country appearance – a look that is emphasized by their predominantly earthy coloration. Quarry tiles contain a high proportion of quartz and are not particularly porous, which makes them a suitable choice for kitchens. There may be slight natural color variations in quarry tiles, even in those from the same batch – a fact you can exploit when planning a color scheme. Small quarry tiles in a variety of shapes are also available, and these are suitable for creating mosaic patterns. If left untreated quarry tiles have a Matt appearance.
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How to seal the ceiling bleed with plaster and aluminium prime sealer?

Ceiling Bleed and stop with plaster or Aluminium prime sealer

Though Ceiling is not considered much like walls and floor in a room at the times of interior designing and decoration, it is must to watch the ceiling and give enough attention to it to get better appearance and gesture in the room.
Stains on a ceiling in interior designing can sometimes “bleed” through new decoration. If this is the case, you will have to seal the interiors ceiling with either aluminium prime-sealer or a proprietary stain block. ,a , Lath and plaster Timber strips known as laths are nailed to the undersides of the joints. Plaster can then be forced between the laths.

Ceiling tiles

Ceiling tiles can be used to cover up a poor surface or to add insulation to a cold room. It is usually best to tile from the center of the ceiling toward the edges of the room. If, however, there is a straight wall near the room’s entrance, you can use it as your starting point.
Expanded polystyrene tiles are usually 30 cm or 60 cm square and have chambered edges. They are fixed with a special tile adhesive that you spread over the entire ceiling. They are easy to trim and cut to size and shape using a sharp knife and straightedge. Fibrous and gypsum plaster tiles are another option for covering a ceiling. These tiles are, however, much heavier than polystyrene types and so they have to be pinned to battens that are screwed at right angles to the ceiling joints, and spaced so that the tiles meet at their centers. Finding the joints may be a little difficult. If you cannot locate them by tapping, listening for a different sound in response, drill a series of small holes in the ceiling until you find one.
Use 3 x 1.5 cm battens, for tongued-and-grooved tiles it is not necessary to install any cross-pieces, but some tiles may require them to give support along their edges. The tiles are pinned through their edges or installed with special clips, which are hidden by the adjoining tiles. If the tiles are to be painted, it is easier to do this before they are attached to the ceiling. Use either an emulsion or a fire- retardant paint, never use gloss paint, since it is highly flammable. Far left Tiles are useful for hiding a poor ceiling and for adding insulation. For the example here, the tiles are mounted in a lightweight frame.
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Tips for Creating Arches with plaster and paper and painting

Creating arches with paper and painting with plastering

Then two strips of paper are applied to the underside of the arch in interior designing and decoration to meet at the apex. Since large motifs and complicated patterns are difficult to match on the different faces of an arch they are best avoided. Small random patterns or textured paper painted with emulsion are better choices.

Fibrous plaster arches

If you don’t feel that your do-it-yourself skills are up to creating an ornate archway, then there are some easy and convincing “cheats” to fall back on, in the form of preformed, fibrous plaster arches. These arches, in various classic styles, are readily available, and are supplied in sections that you fix either directly to the opening, or to a light timber-batten frame, using either screws or caving adhesive and tacks.
Accessories, such as corbels and pillars, made from the same lightweight material, complete the effect. o Mark the center of the opening, offer one mesh arch former section to the wall and lightly nail it in place. e If required for a wide wall, cut soft strips from mesh to cover the gap between the arch former. Nail angle bead for brickwork or mini- mesh angle bead for plasterboard on all vertical corners below the arch. Insert a location jointing piece or dowel into the bead. Leave half protruding. Fit the other arch former. Repeat on the other side. Attach the soft strips to form a continuous infill on the underside of the arch using screws or ties. Plaster directly onto the steel mesh  using either two-coat or one-coat plasters.

Ceilings in interior designing

Although they are an integral part of a room’s structure, ceilings tend to be ignored until they start to cause problems or they are in need of decoration. Fortunately, major problems are few and usually the most that is required before repainting or papering is for a few hairline cracks to be filled in.
However, by simply adding molded decorative features to a ceiling, you can introduce a little style and distinction and perhaps bring harmony to a room.
Lowering a ceiling
There may be many good reasons for wanting to lower a ceiling, but the main ones are to make a room seem more cozy and easier to heat, and also to hide a ceiling that may be cracked or have surface-mounted water pipes. More than likely, the ceiling will be in a tall room and you will want to lower it by a significant amount.
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