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Some colors are harmful for us if viewing continuously. For example if the red color employed in most of the parts of the interior increase the blood activity. And at the same time yellow and the orange are gives us a fresh energy that helps us to make the day without any stress and tiredness. White and blue colors provides us a peaceful and calm atmosphere.
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Plan the work carefully, so that you do not have to cut tiles at external corners or along the top of half-tiled walls. You must start from a level line at a height to suit the overall plan of the tiles, such as skirting board. However, most skirting is not level and you may want to fll1ish the wall with a new skirting over the bottom edge of the tile. You may also have problems tiling above windows and doors. The solution is to fix a temporary batten to the wall to support the first row of tiles you lay.
Decide on a suitable starting point, an exact number of tiles from the top of a half-tiled wall, or in line with existing tiles over a window or doorway, and fix the batten in place with masonry nails. Check that it is exactly level with a spirit level. Spread adhesive and lay tiles as before, working upwards from the batten. Some ranges of tiles include special fittings, such as soap dishes and towel rail fittings.
If you are using these accessories, they may be a little heavy, so hold them in place with sticky tape until the tile adhesive is dry. Finally, fill in to cut a thicker tile, score the cutting line and position the jaws of the snapping tool on either side of the marked line and squeeze to make a clean break. Use a tile sanding block to smooth the cut edges. To cut tiles to fit around awkward shapes, nibble at the area to be cut away with a pair of pincers after you have cut a template from paper and traced it onto the tile.
When the whole area is tiled, leave the adhesive to set – normally at least 12 hours. Then spread tile grout over the surface, paying particular attention to the gaps between the tiles. Immediately clean the grout off the face of the tiles with a sponge, rinsing it out frequently.
TILING LARGE AREAS
Plan the work carefully, so that you do not have to cut tiles at external corners or along the top of half-tiled walls. You must start from a level line at a height to suit the overall plan of the tiles, such as skirting board. However, most skirting is not level and you may want to finish the wall with a new skirting over the bottom edge of the tile. You may also have problems tiling above windows and doors. The solution is to fix a temporary batten to the wall to support the first row of tiles you lay. Decide on a suitable starting point, an exact number of tiles from the top of a half-tiled wall, or in line with existing tiles over a window or doorway, and fix the batten in place with masonry nails. Check that it is exactly level with a spirit level. Spread adhesive and lay tiles as before, working upwards from the batten.
Some ranges of tiles include special fittings, such as soap dishes and towel rail fittings. If you are using these accessories, they may be a little heavy, so hold them in place with sticky tape until the tile adhesive is dry. Finally, fill in ” 2 around the lower part of the wall, or neater the area around the top of the window or door with part tiles. When dry, apply grout and polish up the tiles. If you have to drill into tiles to make fixings after they are laid, use a slow drill speed and choose round or dome-headed non-rust screws.
Plan the work carefully, so that you do not have to cut tiles at external corners or along the top of half-tiled walls. You must start from a level line at a height to suit the overall plan of the tiles, such as skirting board. However, most skirting are not level and you may want to finish the wall with a new skirting over the bottom edge of the tile. You may also have problems tiling above windows and doors.
The solution is to fix a temporary batten to the wall to support the first row of tiles you lay. Decide on a suitable starting point, an exact number of tiles from the top of a half-tiled wall, or in line with existing tiles over a window or doorway, and fix the batten in place with masonry nails. Check that it is exactly level with a spirit level. Spread adhesive and lay tiles as before, working upwards from the batten.
Some ranges of tiles include special fittings, such as soap dishes and towel rail fittings. If you are using these accessories, they may be a little heavy, so hold them in place with sticky tape until the tile adhesive is dry. Finally, fill around the lower part of the wall, or neaten the area around the top of the window or door with part tiles. When dry, apply grout and polish up the tiles.
If you have to drill into tiles to make fixings after they are laid, use a slow drill speed and choose round or dome-headed non-rust screws. Place a piece of adhesive tape over the tile to prevent the drill slipping while you work.
Patchwork was originally developed as a method of re-cycling fabrics, but has developed into an art form. This basic machine method based on simple shapes like the square and triangle is a time- saving way to re-create the effect. Quilting can be done after all the patches are sewn together. Cut out all the shapes with the same seam allowance so that they match up at the seam lines when the units, or blocks, of smaller patchworks are sewn together into the final throw over. The instructions here are for the simplest throw over made from squares that are all the same size (or you can assemble triangles to the same size as the squares shapes like the square and triangle is a time- saving way to re-create the effect.
Quilting can be done after all the patches are sewn together. Cut out all the shapes with the same seam allowance so that they match up at the seam lines when the units, or blocks, of smaller patchworks are sewn together into the final throw over. The instructions here are for the simplest throw over made from squares that are all the same size (or you can assemble triangles to the same size as the squares).
MAKING QUILTS For variations of pattern, plan the arrangement of squares on graph paper before you start, using crayons or colored pens to organize the color sequences. You can increase the number of fabrics you use so that the whole is graded in tone from the center outwards, Choose three or four coordinating fabrics and cut them first into strips, 12 cm (4i in) wide, and then into squares of the same measurement.
Press under 1 cm (i in) wide turnings all around each square. Take the first two squares, in two different fabrics, and join with a flat seam. Join further squares to the opposite free edges, keeping the different patterns in the same order. Join enough squares to make a strip the length of the finished guilt, Make up further strips until you have enough to fit the width of the guilt. Plan the strips so that each one starts with a different fabric in the sequence. Press all seams open and clip across corners of seam allowance, Join the strips in the same way as the squares, being careful to take precise 1cm seam allowances.
Check the arrangement of the strips before stitching so that they form diagonal bands of pattern. Press the seams open. Make up the guilt with a plain backing panel and a piece of wadding the same size as the patchwork panel, and bind the edge. When joining triangles to form’ a square, match the raw edges carefully or the resulting seam will be incorrectly aligned.
Interior Designing and Decoration tiling walls
When starting on a tiling interior desiging and decoration project, plan the work carefully, so that you can calculate the exact number of tiles you need and, more important, ensure that you cut as few tiles as possible to give a neat finish and so make the task easier. When do it yourself wall tiling, It is worth drawing up a plan of the wall on graph paper, marking out the area to be tiled. Always plan to position the finished edges of tiles along the exposed edge of the tiled area to give a neat finish. Ensure that, Tiles are fixed in place with tiling adhesive, available ready-mixed; use waterproof adhesives for splash backs. An adhesive spreader is usually included.
Cutting Tiles for Interior design wall tiles
For cutting tiles, you will need a tile cutter (usually sold complete with cutting guide), and a tile snapper to break the tile along the line scored with the cutter. When do it yourself wall tiling, If you are cutting thick tiles, buy or hire a heavy- duty tile cutter. After fixing the tiles, they have to be grouted – the spaces between the tiles are finished with a cement-based, acrylic or epoxy filler to give an even surface.
Wall tiling Surface preparation
When do it yourself wall tiling, The wall surface to be tiled in interior designing and decoration, must be suitable for tiling and properly prepared. Bare plaster walls give a perfect surface, but you can also tile over existing tiles. Firmly fixed wood and exterior grade plywood are also suitable but avoid using chipboard as a surface for tiling: the tiles are rarely entirely waterproof and chipboard will swell and ‘blow’ if it gets wet. When the tiling is completed, fill the angle at the bottom of the splash back with silicone or acrylic sealant to give a flexible joint. When applying sealant, always push the nozzle of the tube away from you, rather than dragging it.
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Walls Tiling in interior designing and decoration-Do It Yourself Tips by best interior designers, Top Interior designing company.
HAND SEWING CURTAINS
Use dressmaker’s chalk to mark the pleat fold lines on the back of the ungathered curtain, according to the calculations. Fold and- stitch along the pleat lines in a straight line to 10 cm (4 in) depth, then 4 fold each pleat by hand. Stitch the base of the pleat by hand, and catch the inner folds together at the top. Insert spiked hooks- into each pleat.
WINDOW DRESSING SWAGS & TAILS
Swags and tails are fixed to a shelf above the window. There are no text-book rules for proportions, but as with all window dressing, if you want plenty of light to come through the window, fit the shelf well above the window and extend it on either side. Norm- ally, the first pleat of the tail should be at about the same level as the lowest point of the sweep of the swag. When making your own swags and tails, it is worth using old sheets to make a mock-up or toile of the finished item. The upper edge should be about 50 cm (20 in) shorter than the shelf, and the lower edge about 20 cm (8 in) longer, according to the depth of the swag.
Decide on an appropriate depth for the tails, depending on the fullness required. Pin the toile across the top of the shelf to give the effect, pleating or gathering the ends. When you are happy with the arrangement, mark the fabric where it folds over the front edge.
Open out the taile and mark the seam line following the existing marks. Use this as a guide to cut out the fabric, allowing 4 cm turnings along the top and bottom edge, and 10 cm (4 in) for gathering and finishing down the angled side edges. Make up the swag, lining and interlining if necessary, as for machine- or hand-made curtains, treating the upper and lower edges of the swag as the sides of the curtain. Gather or pleat the angled sides along the seam line and pin in place to check the drape. Topstitch, then trim the raw edges and finish by binding or zigzag stitching.
To make a toile for the tails, plan the width and spacing for the fold lines using a tape measure held along the top of the shelf. Decide on the inner and outer lengths of the tails and transfer all the measurements to the toile fabric. Cut out and check for fit. 4 Use the toile as a pattern piece, allowing 2 cm G in) turnings all around the sides and lower edge, and 10 cm (4 in) at the top edge. Cut lining to the same size as the main fabric. Interline the main fabric panel, then position the lining on the tail, right sides facing, and stitch together all around the sides and lower edges. Trim scams, press and turn right side out.
Press again, then mark and press the pleats into position. Check for fit, then top- stitch pleats, trim raw edges and bind or zigzag stitch together. 5 Finally, fit the swags and tails in place, stapling them to the top of the shelf so that the tails overlap the ends of the swag.
Cut out a fabric panel for the top of the cushion, making a template if necessary. Include a 12 mm scam allowance. For the back, cut two panels of fabric to fit the cushion allowing 2.5cm extra for the zip to be inserted across the panel. Make up a welt to fit tightly around the cushion pad. Clip into the scam allowances at the corners.
If the cushion is round or awkwardly shaped, cut the welt on the bias to make it easier to fit. Fit piping all around the upper and lower panels if required. With right sides facing inwards, fit the top and base panel to the welt and pin. If the cushion is to be tied in place, make up fabric tics and pin them into the scams at the back corners. Remove the pinned cover by opening the zip and machine stitch the scams.
Clip scam allowance across the corners and notch curved scams as necessary ( 198). The zip can be inserted into the welt in which case measure up for two lengths of fabric to make up the welt, one that extends around adjoining corners by 5cm both ways. This piece needs to be 2.5 cm wider than the other welt piece so that it can be split down its length to insert the zip. With the zip open, right sides facing and raw edges matching, sew around the cushion. Turn right side out. Press before inserting the cushion pad.
MAKING CUSHIONS BOLSTER CUSHION
Before cutting the fabric, decide whether any pattern should run along or around the cushion. Cut a rectangle of fabric long enough to wrap around the bolster pad, with 12 mm seam allowance down all sides. Make the rectangle into a tube to fit around the pad, setting a zip into the seam. Fit on to the pad wrong side out, and clip into the seam allowance. Cut a circle of fabric for each end of the cushion, including the same seam allowance.
Apply piping or frills around the edge if required. Fit the circles on to either end of the tube, wrong side out, and tack along the seam line. Remove the cover from the pad and machine stitch scams. Layer and notch seam allowances and press towards the circles. Press, and then turn right side out and press again before inserting the cushion pad. You can decorate the end of bolsters with tassels, rosettes, covered buttons etc.
SWAGS & TAILS WINDOW DRESSING LACE & VOILE
The prettiest and most romantic of fabrics, lace gently filters light into a room whilst ensuring privacy. Usually light in color, lace has distinctive qualities of texture and drape, spangling sunlight, creating shadows and fluttering in the breeze from an open window. Muslin and voile, either plain or sprigged with flowers and garlands, can be turned into wispy swags or brief draperies to head a classic window, or they can be reefed up into festoons.
But these fine fabrics drape gloriously when generous lengths are looped and swathed around curtain poles and allowed to descend in full-length cascades, or a full curtain can be knotted halfway- down to flare out again at the hemline. Sheer curtains can overlap across the full width of a window and then be tied back in graceful loops, one side set higher than the other and the overlapping edges accentuated with tassel trimming.
Figured lace should be used much more sparingly than muslin or voile. Lace curtains need very little fullness; in fact some panels look most effective when hung flat against the window using a cased heading or curtain rings and a slender pole. Lace panels with integral borders running round three sides sometimes have a lightweight drawstring tape across the top, stitched so that it doubles as a cased heading. Pelmet (valance) lace is also available and can add a further layer to a lace window treatment.
When voile or lace curtains are needed for privacy, sew cased headings and slot the fabric in un-join widths (to avoid ugly seams) on to rods at both top and bottom, anchored within the window frame so that they hold the fabric lightly taut across the face of the glass. This method particularly suits French windows and glazed doors and is essential to hold fabric close to pivot and sloping windows.
The casings top and bottom are made with two lines of stitching, forming a (stand’ or heading. Simple ties draw the curtains in at the waist. A plain roller blind screens the top part of the window, and can be drawn down necessary. RIGHT A pair of lace panels has been fitted over a slim brass rod to hold these curtains close to the frame oj these generous bedroom windows. The width of each curtain allows for gentle gathers hut still shows off the pattern of the lace.
WINDOW DRESSING MAKING LACE & VOILE CURTAINS
To show off intricate patterns on panels of lace, whether antique or contemporary, you need very little fullness. Use either a cased heading or clip-on rings to achieve this effect. Take particular care when measuring for lace panels: if they are hung by rings from a pole, measure from just beneath the pole; if they are hung from a plain track or rod, measure from the top of the fixture. Headings for any type of sheer curtain fabric may be made in a number of ways, depending on the nature of the fabric and the effect you want.
A cased heading, which enables you to slot the fabric onto a curtain rod or wire, is the simplest to make. For more formal gathers there are special lightweight curtain heading tapes. Because of the transparent nature of the fabric, seams must be made as invisible as possible with borders arranged carefully around the edge of the curtains. Allow ample fullness with fine voile and other fabrics – up to three times.
PLEATS BY HAND
Plan a suitable size and spacing of pleats and work out how much fullness this requires. For example, for triple pleats taking 25cm(10 in) of fabric, spaced 15cm(6 in) apart, the fullness is just under 3 times the width of the pleated curtain (because you need 40 cm/16 in to cover 15 cm/6 in of track). To find out how many widths of fabric you will need for each curtain, multiply the distance the curtain is to cover by the fullness allowance, and divide by the width of fabric, rounding the figure up or down to the nearest half. Multiply by two (or the number of curtains) to give the total number of widths of fabric required.
Decide on the finished length and add an allowance of 10cmand at the hem and allows matching if necessary, multi-length by the total number of the amount of fabric. Work out the total width(un-pleated) curtain by multiplier of widths required by the fabric, subtracting 4cm(down each side edge of the curt total number of pleats, take (pleated) width of the curtain a space allowance at each side (2 in). Then divide by the plea tween the pleats. Round up c nearest whole number and add CURTAINS PLEATS BY HAND Plan a suitable size and spacing of pleats and work out how much fullness this requires.
For example, for triple pleats taking 25 cm (10 in) of fabric, spaced 15cm(6 in) apart, the fullness is just under 3 times the width of the pleated curtain (because you need 40 cm/16 in to cover 15 cm/6 in of track). To find out how many widths of fabric you will need for each curtain, multiply the distance the curtain is to cover by the fullness allowance, and divide by the width of fabric, rounding the figure up or down to the nearest half. Multiply by two (or the number of curtains) to give the total number of widths of fabric required.
Decide on the finished length of the curtains and add an allowance of 10 elms (4 in) at the top and at the hem and an allowance for pattern matching if necessary. Multiply the finished length by the total number of widths to give the amount of fabric.
Work out the total width of the made-up (un-pleated) curtain by multiplying the number of widths required by the width of the fabric, subtracting 4 CMS for turnings down each side edge of the curtain. To find the total number of pleats, take the finished (pleated) width of the curtain and subtract the space allowance at each side edge, say 5 cm (2 in). Then divide by the planned space between the pleats. Round up or down to the nearest whole number and add one. (Calculate 1 the adjusted distance between the pleats if you have rounded the figure.)
Finally, check that the planned size of the pleats takes up all the fullness of the fabric. Make minor adjustments to the seam allowance and space at each side of the curtain to make measuring and marking up easier. For lining, you will need enough fabric to make up a panel the width of the finished curtain, as calculated above. No extra side turning allowance is required. For the length, add 12mm U in) top turning and 6 CMS hem allowance. Interlining should be the same size as the finished curtain. Make up a curtain panel, matching pattern, and a lining panel, using Rat seams and clipping into the selvages. Makeup interlining, using lapped seams ( 199). Cut a strip of interfacing (woven or iron-on) 10 cm (4 in) deep (or more, according to the depth of heading) to match the width of the finished curtain.
Mark the turning allowance at the top of the curtain. Apply interfacing across the top turning, aligning the top of the interfacing with the top fold line of the curtain, position interlining on the wrong side of the fabric, leaving turning allowances all around. Lock- stitch in place, then press the turnings at the top and sides of the curtain over the interlining and herringbone stitch in place. Turn up and stitch a 4 cm double hem across the lower edge of the lining. Turn under and press 2 in) seams all round. Lockstitch lining to interlining, then slip stitch the folded edges of the lining to the folded edges of the curtain across the top and down the sides. Turn up the hem of the curtain and slipstitch in place beneath lining.
Designing your own cushions
Cushions can be made from scratch, which gives complete freedom of choice in the matter of shape and filling. This will be necessary when cushions are to fit a window seat or follow the shape of a chair seat, but for scatter cushions you can choose from a wide range of ready-made shapes and sizes. Sometimes scatter cushions do need to be custom- made to match the size of a fragment of antique textile, or when making cushions with a theme – children love cat or flower-shaped cushions. The inner covers of cushions arc made of calico, sateen or down-proof cambric, according to the filling that is to go inside.
Feathers have always been the elite filling for cushions and their supreme softness and natural resilience is unchallenged, but feathers can work their way out through some weaves. Fibrous kapok can become lumpy and foam chip fillings are unavoidably so. Lightweight polyester cushion pads have the advantage of being washable, but they do not possess the supple quality of feathers. For thin squab cushions and deeper box or welted ones, choose a foam filling but check that it matches flammability safeguards.
Most furnishing fabrics and even some dress fabrics are suitable for covering scatter cushions, but for chairs or window scats use firm woven cottons or linens, or even fabrics of upholstery weight if they are not too thick. For sheer extravagance, delicate lace or hand-painted cushions are the ultimate accessory.
SOFT FURNISHINGS MAKING CUSHIONS
Any cushion starts with a cushion pad. To calculate the amount of fabric and work out the pattern for a cushion, measure the pad and plan the main panels of fabric allowing 12 mm seams all round. For shaped cushions, either welted or plain, cut a paper template to fit the area exactly. If the cushion is an unusual shape – for a chair seat or a heart shape, for example – fold the paper in half before cutting it out to ensure it is symmetrical.
COVERING A BLOCK OF FOAM Using calico, cut a top panel and base panel to fit the foam block, allowing 12 mm all round for seams. Cut a strip of fabric for the welt on the straight grain, to fit all around the foam (see below).Join the ends to form a circle and fit it tightly around the foam. Clip into the seam allowances at corners and position the top and base panels in place. Tack together at the seams, leaving an opening in one edge. Remove the pad, stitch seams and press, then turn right side out. Insert the foam pad and slip stitch the opening by hand.
ENVELOPE METHOD This is a quick method suitable for calico covers or simple fabric covers with no piping. Start by measuring around the block of foam, to give the total amount of fabric required to wrap around the block. Add 3 cm seam allowance. Measure the length of the foam block and half-way down the welt at each end. Add 3 cm to give the total width of fabric required. Cut out a single piece of fabric to this measurement. 1 Join the top and bottom edge with a flat seam, leaving a 30cmopening in the center, or setting a zip into the seam if required.
This forms a tube. 2 Slip the tube over the foam pad, wrong side out, and pin a seam at each end. The seam line should be positioned in the center of each end panel, and be slightly shorter than the panel, allowing half the depth of the end panel at each end to make a neat miter. Remove the cover from the foam, tack and stitch the seam, then make short diagonal seams to form a neatly mitered end. Trim away the excess fabric from the seams, turn right side out and press. Replace the foam pad in the cover and stitch up the opening, or close with the zip.
SCATTER CUSHION Cut out the top cushion piece from fabric, allowing 12mm scam allowance all round, and make a paper template from it. Cut the paper across where the zip is to be inserted (about a third of the way down), and spread the pieces 2.5cm apart to allow for the zip. Make a template of this shape and use it to cut the fabric piece for the back. Insert the zip. Apply any decorative trims to the front panel of the cushion. Position the piping or a frill around one cushion piece if required, raw edges together, the piping or frill facing the center of the cushion piece. Tack and stitch in place.
SOFT FURNISHINGS UPHOLSTERY
The elegant curves of a regency cushion or a strong outline of a high-backed dining chair demand tight covering to emphasize their shape. Take in techniques, such as deep buttoning. The whole spectrum of fabric types can be used for upholstery from the heaviest velvet and tweeds and the intermediate weight linens and cottons to more and satin. As fitted upholstery is less easy to clean than removable covers (slipcovers), pastel weaves and prints on a light background will benefit from a stain-resistant finish and fitted arm caps will protect fabric from heavy wear.
Thick, patterned tapestry in rich colors is a practical and decorative alternative. Basic principles In its most basic form, upholstery is a panel of fabric fitted over any tight, calico-covered, padded surface. More advanced upholstery skills take in the fitting and shaping of the padding as well as the application of the top cover. Various combinations of stuffing and padding are used.
The most basic is the padded seat in which a thick layer of foam is cut to fit a seat panel and then held in place and slightly shaped by a tight calico cover, tacked under the edge of the seat panel. Formal chair seats are constructed on a base of webbing stretched across the frame of the seat and covered with a layer of coarse canvas to support traditional padding, usually horsehair and cotton wadding, or modern foam and polyester substitutes.
Upholstery may also contain springs in the seats and arms of chairs and sofas and occasionally in the seats of traditional upright dining or occasional chairs. A drop-in dining chair seat is a good initiation into the skills of upholstery because the work is limited to a small surface. Dining or occasional chairs with fully upholstered backs are a more advanced task. A tight calico cover is seamed or cut and shaped to fit around the back, allowing ease at the seat, before it is tacked in place.
Decorative trimmings covering fabrics are nailed to the framework of upholstered furniture leaving at least the lower edge visible. Brass-headed furniture tacks can be used as a decorative disguise, following early traditions where nails were used in a variety of complex patterns. Braid or gimp can also be stapled or glued over tack heads, or adopt the more flamboyant historic practice of using fringing around chair edges or footstools and tassels on arm ends and bolsters.
You will need some special tools if you plan to tackle the construction, as well as the finish, of upholstery. Webbing can be stretched more efficiently if you use a webbing stretcher which grips the webbing so you can pull it taut over the frame (or improvise with a block of wood. Use upholstery tacks and a fine hammer to fix the webbing, canvas and calico in place. The horsehair is held in place with large, loose stitches (bridle ties); you will need a heavy, straight or curved upholstery needle to do this. A finer curved needle is useful for slip stitching fabric in place – both the calico cover and the top cover of the chair.