Tools for Do it yourself Tips in interior designing and decoration

Adjustable spanner With 2.4cm fnearly 1 in) opening for routine plumbing tasks. Chisels Choose the bevel-edged type. Sizes include 6mm, 1.2cm, 1.8cm and 2.5cm, ~in, and 1 in). Claw hammer The claw draws nails. Soft-face mallet Used when it is important not to leave any mark on metal and wood surfaces. Try-square For marking right angles. File For smoothing 1 .2cm f~in) round. Steel measuring tape Typically 3.5m f12ft) in length. Check that the tape is clearly marked with both metric and imperial measurements. Glue gun Filled with sticks of special adhesive and sealant for quick repair work. Shaping tool Surform 23cm fgin). Tool carrier Lightweight carrier for selected tools required for the job in hand. 9 Steel rule 10 Spirit level 11 File 12 Steel tape measure 13 Chisels Painting tools The way you apply paint is largely a matter of personal choice. You can use brushes in conjunction with a paint-roller – a tool developed for the amateur user of emulsion paint. The paint pad has its advantages, too.

There are also a few vital special items: triangular shave hooks and flexible scrapers for removing old paint; masking tape for protecting surfaces not to be painted; paint shield in metal or plastic to restrict paint to the area being painted; tack or tacky rag to pick up dust; clean, lint-free rags; paint stirrer fthere is one usable with a power drill); paint kettles. Use a kettle so the bulk of your paint stays free of contamination. It also makes carrying paint – especially up ladders – much easier, since not all paint tins have handles. Brushes For a good finish, choose brushes with genuine bristle or with the best-quality synthetic bristle. As a rule, costlier brushes do give the best results. Use inexpensive brushes for outside work, such as applying preservatives to wooden fencing or paint- ing masonry.

Hardware Tools usage in interior designing and decoartion

These often include a number of tools you will never use. Be selective and choose tools according to the work you plan to do. Clean tools immediately after use. A wipe with an oily rag ensures metal surfaces stay rust-free. Never let sharp tools rub against each other – this is the most common cause of blunted cutting edges. A soft hold-all is best for transporting tools. Wooden, metal, or plastic tool boxes are heavy and cumbersome. Anticlockwisc from top 1 Heavy- duty craft knife 2 Floorboard saw 3 TenOIl saw 4 Mini hacksaw 5 Mole grips fself-grip wrench) 6 G-clamp 7 Adjustable spanner 8 Pincers 9 Pliers 10 Fine-nose pliers Keep hands away from the direction of any cut. Wherever pos- sible, clamp work to free both hands to hold the tool correctly.

Always unplug power tools when they are not in use, and store them out of reach of children. Wear protective clothing where recommended fsee p. 48). A basic tool kit You will find many of the following tools useful for everyday household tasks. Specific tools for decorating and other special tasks are described in detail on later pages fsee p, 39-43). Portable workbench This provides a working surface and high adaptable vice, and can be used as a step-up or as one of two trestles. Steel rule For use as an accurate cutting guide as well as when marking straight lines. Metre rule Plastic rules are lightweight and the folding wooden types are convenient. Spirit level For checking horizontal and vertical surfaces before fixing them in place. Tenon saw For fine cutting smaller timber sections, 25cm the pt, or “point”, refers to the number of teeth per 2.5cm fI in) of blade. General purpose fGP) saw Used for cutting both metal and wood. Copes well with old and reclaimed timber that may contain nails or screws. Mini hacksaw For cutting metal.

Cress-cut handsaw Used for cutting larger timber sections, 56cm f22in), 1 Opt. Cress-sfot fPozidriv/Supadriv) screwdriver Blade sizes differ for variously gauged Phillips screws. Single•slot screwdriver Blade sizes differ according to screw sizes. Good-quality ratchet and spiral-ratchet screwdrivers are worthwhile labour-saving tools. Electrician’s screwdriver The handle is specially insulated to protect the user against accidentally touching a live wire. G-clamps Used for holding work in position, 1 Ocm and 20cm f4in and Bin). Power drill With or without cord Set of twist drills and masonry drills Twist drills for wood and softer metals only. Not interchangeable. Antidockwise from top 1 Soft-face mallet 2 Lump hammer 3 Claw hammer 4 Pin hammer 5 Cold chisels 6 Single-slot screwdrivers 7 Cross-slot screwdriver 8 Bradawl Self-grip wrench fmole) Snaplocks onto objects, leaving your hands free. Fine-nose pliers For gripping and manipulating small, hard-to- reach objects. Pincers For pulling nails. Craft knife With disposable blades.

Painting Visual Continuity and Textures as well as themes in interior designing and decoration

TRICKS WITH TEXTURES • Create visual continuity by linking interconnecting rooms with the same carpeting or by repeating a fabric. • Break up large areas into more intimate areas by using textured hangings, drapes, and rugs. • Create contrasts by interspersing textures and patterns with areas of plain, smooth colour. Above Texture and pattern dominate in this child’s bedroom, giving-an enclosed and comforting, yet visually sti’1rulatillg, effect. Oppositrop The pattern of a ii7~d>f~, ouerlaid with a lJ1’ightly patterned mg. anchors interest firmlypt ground level in this lofty bedroom. Opposite bottom Visual continuity has been assured here through the use of repeated colour= the ~, lie, and purple of the walls. ceiling. and furniture ec dill the patterning of the mgs and bedspread, Left When small areas only o/Pat-tem are used they immediately become a focal point for “;i’;>OOJ1l.


Focal patterns f the room you are decorating has a special feature you might like to emphasize it and treat it as a focal point. The most obvious focal points are fireplaces, large bay windows and unusual recesses. Any of these could be accentuated by applying pattern to the surface. For example, to highlight a fireplace, use a wallcovering in a warm-toned complementary style, or turn an alcove or wall into a focal point with a splash of colourful pattern; offset these by keeping the adjacent walls plain. You could enhance a bay window with richly patterned floor-to-ceiling curtains. The opposite can also work successfully. For example, you could decorate most of the room  in subtle patterns, leaving an expanse of plain colour in a featured alcove, as a backdrop to shelves of attractive ornaments or a display of framed pictures. In general, select smaller and more subtle patterns for small areas; larger, bolder patterns work better in more spacious areas. Strong patterns tend to dominate and should be used thoughtfully. In a narrow room, horizontal stripes make the space look wider. Regular geometric patterns are more static and formal, while repetitive floral patterns give a sense of movement and flow. n o r- o c: ~


PLANNING • Warm, rich colours and hard, shiny surfaces appear to come toward you. Cool colours and soft, matt textures give the appearance of receding more into the background. Bear this in mind when you want to alter the apparent size of a room . • Draw a sketch of the room and indicate areas of  contrasting colour, texture, and pattern. When selecting a focal point, keep in mind a balance of activity in order to avoid making one area busy with pattern and colour and another area relatively quiet and plain. • Above This extremely white bath is set in a bathroom which is dominated by pastel colours.

Painting Tips and Guide for interior designing and decoration


Making a sample board is both useful and fun. Collect samples of the materials you propose to use and see how they look when laid out next to one another on a board. Include colours from paint charts, swatches of fabrics, pieces of wallcoverings, samples of carpeting and offcuts of any other materials. Cut out the samples into their correct proportion in relation to the scheme and paste them onto the board.

If you are using a variety of patterns, create visual continuity by relating their predominant colour throughout the house.

Link areas of the home by limiting the wallcoverings in the halls and stairways to a single pattern and colour, or by having fitted carpeting in a single colour and texture throughout the house. Size, shape and colour There are many ways to create a decorative scheme with patterns. So much colour mixing and matching is a matter of personal taste:


For example, patterns can be the same size and form but have different colours, such as varied floral designs. Or they can have the same form and colour but be different sizes, such as different types of the stripe. Or they can have the same colour and size but have varied forms, such as a mixture of geometries and florals. Perhaps the easiest way to match patterns is to pick ones that have the same size and design and differ only in colour. In this context, you then really only have to choose colours that contrast or blend well together, following the guidelines established earlier. If you want to combine small, regular patterns with large, bold ones, make sure that the two patterns are linked by colour. If the overall colours of each pattern are close to one another on the colour wheel the effect will be successful.


Above III this bedroom, the clever mix of patterns creates a striking yet restful decor. The patterns, varying from plaid and star-shaped to floral, are linked through a limited number of colours close in tonal range. Below Two different patterns – one large and geometric, the other small and floral- have been linked through colour. Yellow/ and white are repeated if the wallpaper. tablecloth, and cushions as u/ell as ill the bedposts, chair, and table lamp. Even the framed prints are colour coordinated. Right III this kitchen, two different styles of pattern bai» been connected through the use of colour. Below Although initially looking discordant, all the famous colours making lip the patterns in this child’s room have been thoughtfully coordinated to produce overall harmony.

Painting looks tricks in interior designing and decoration

However, you can emphasize the intensity of a small space by using a large pattern in a small room. Small patterns Small patterns -like pale, neutral colours – suit smaller spaces. They are particularly effective in rooms with lots of surfaces at different angles, such as an attic room. Here, miniature designs, such as small floral patterns, can give the illusion of a larger, cohesive space. Tiny patterns take on a single colour and tone when viewed from a distance, making them the easiest to match to a colour scheme. Whether you allow a small- scale pattern to function as a single tone  throughout a room, or coordinate it with areas of plain colour, is a personal decision. In general, however, a balance of plain colour and patterned areas tends to be easy on the eyes. Avoid using small designs in large rooms, since they can look spotty.


Above right The blue check chair was the starting point for this room’s decorative theine. The blue colour, contrasted with white, is repeated in the curtains and u.alt lamps and, using paler tones, in the wallpaper, too. The yellow background colour of the sofa [uids expression if the pot of flowers and is reflected ill the wall frieze. Right! It IS easier to change from the pattern to all- other if ),011 mark the transition by making it a feature. The change from the airy pattern of the IIpper walls to the busier lower walls is accomplished by with a large, repeating pattern. Pattern harmony Contrasting a single pattern with a limited number of plain colours requires thought and planning. The size, style, and colours of the pattern all need to be selected carefully so they harmonise with the rest of the decor.  When it comes to combining two or more patterns that match or contrast with one another, the challenge is that much greater. However, by following a few guidelines, you will quickly see how to use a variety of patterns to create a strikingly successful decorative scheme.

Colours and pattern combinations in interior designing and decoration


To collect ideas for colour and pattern combinations, keep a file of samples from magazines and swatches of colour and pattern of your existing and proposed decor. Pay attention to any bold- coloured items that need to match, and take all the samples with you when shopping for fabrics and papers.  Remember that the predominant colours in a pattern influence mood. Reds have a warm, welcoming quality; blues are restful and calming; browns and oranges are warm; yellows are bright and reflective; greens have a natural, cool, and spacious feel. Patterns in pale, neutral tones of these colours act like texture to add depth and interest rather than explicit mood. Si ze and scale he scale of patterns that you incorporate into your decorating scheme can vary from enormous repeats that dominate a room to minuscule mini-prints that are hardly visible from a distance.

Generally, large patterns have much the same effects and use as vivid colours while small patterns function like muted colours. It is easier to have a great variety of colour and pattern if the patterns are detailed and of a fairly similar small size.


Bold, vertically striped wallpaper increases the apparent height of either small or larger rooms. • Horizontal stripes make the walls appear longer and lower. • One way to incorporate a large-scale design into a fairly small room is to choose a pattern with muted colours on a background that does not form toO vivid a contrast. large patterns Large-scale patterns require careful planning. If the design contrasts highly with its background, it will create a basic colour scheme around which the rest of the decor must revolve. Usually, large, bold patterns emphasise form and movement. They look most attractive when used on large areas such as a stairwell, where the design can be seen in its entirety without the interruption of furnishings. Like dark colours, they can also be effective on a single wall of a large room, as a focal point below left Big areas of large-scale patterns, such a, the ones ill this living room, ill vivid primary colour dominate a room, The effect will be overpowering unless the room is well proportioned and balanced with more muted decorative elements, such as a comparatively plain carpet and ceiling. Below A very limited range of colours has been used here, from the blue-purple part of the spectrum. Note that although the patterning is bold, it i. all of a consistent size and the background is plain. Right Apart from the full-length drapes, this dining room is without the pattern. The expanse of red of the walls, ceiling, and the carpet is effectively alleviated by the high-gloss white woodwork. or backdrop to plain furnishings. Large patterns tend to make a small room look smaller, and are less suitable for rooms with lots of windows, doors, or alcoves since the motifs will be constantly interrupted.

Painting Patterns and Texture colors in interior designing and decoration

A common mistake is to choose a pattern that is either too dark or too fussy. Be sure to consider both the lighting and the size of the area you are decorating. If you are not certain what pattern to choose, opt for one with an off-white background and colours subtly contrasting or complementing the colours in the room. Balance is all important. Too little variety of colour, tone, pattern, or texture and the room may seem life- less. Too much, and it can look chaotic. If you already have a neutral colour scheme, then you have the scope to balance it with a variety of rich patterns. But if you have heavily patterned, richly coloured curtains, consider a plain wallcovering in a muted tone of the predominant colour in the pattern. Right A limited range of colours, predominantly blue and red – prevent the pattern in this room from becoming overpowering. The stark plainness of the upper walls and ceiling is an effective balance.

Painting tone and color work together in interior designing and decoration

These elements can work together, resonate in tone, or vibrate with their difference. Whether you select one style or create happy mix, every single element that you place in a room relates to each other and interacts. These choices create an atmosphere that is uniquely your own. Below The paint-work of this hand detail skirting board and door frame creates a strong country feel to this room. Below Bold patterns in fabrics and [urnisbings are used, to dramatic effect, in this vibrant colour range. Above This distinctive floor, painting is influenced by the strong patterns and colours of In our everyday lives, brilliant colours are available at every turn. Part of the experience of visiting other countries is in viewing the colours of the landscape and buildings that we see there.


These colours define a nation, and can differentiate north from south, as in France and the United States. When visiting New England, no one can fail to be charmed by the array of brown-red barns and pale blue, grey and ochre painted houses. In Mexico, the colours are lively and extrovert combinations of vivid earth reds and yellows juxtaposed with brilliant greens and vibrant pinks and blues. On European soil the stunning, dusky earthy pinks of Italy have long been an inspiration to many, while in Greece, Spain and Portugal there are dazzling buildings painted in limewash white, often with a touch of clear blue. All countries use earth colours, especially oxide reds and yellow ochres, which have always been cheap and plentiful. These colour tones differ slightly from one country to the next – sometimes being warmer or deeper. Today, the interest in historical colour has been revived, with the help of historians, conservationists and artists who advocate and realise the need to understand the authentic colours of the past world.


Choosing patterns Like colour, the pattern can serve many functions. Patterned wallcoverings can be a focal point or a backdrop, or they can alter the apparent dimensions of a room. In addition, patterns are more effective than plain surfaces in disguising an odd-shaped room or covering uneven walls. Patterned fabrics can give a new lease of life to old upholstery, and patterned rugs and curtains can be stylish and sophisticated. When choosing, you need to consider how effectively a large area of the pattern will complement or contrast with your existing colour schemes. Patterns influence the mood of a room, much like colours do, so start by considering the function of the room. Large, bold patterns – like deep, rich colours – are intense and active, and work best as focal points in large living areas. Small, subtle patterns – like pale, neutral colours – offer a less-challenging backdrop. You will also need to consider the basic colour scheme with which the pattern will contrast or harmonise. If the pattern is fairly small, it will take on the appearance of a single tone when seen from a distance. You can then use the principles of colour matching to decide if it works with the rest of the decor.

Lighting effects and arrangement in interior designing and decoration

The simple on/off switch – usually operating with a rocker action – is wired into a lighting circuit to control one or more room lights. Plate switches have one, two, or more individual switches, known as gangs. The basic switch with just two wiring terminals provides “one-way” switching – making it the only control point for the light it serves. A switch with three terminals can be wired for two-way switching -linked to another switch to allow lights to be controlled from either switch. Socket outlets are available as singles, doubles, and triples and, switched or unswitched. The faceplates may have neon indicators to show if the power is on. Fused connection units are used to provide a permanent flex connection for large, fixed appliances. From left to right 1 Cable and pipe detector 2 Insulation tape 3 Wire cutterslstrippers for differing conductor sizes 4 Electrical screwdriver 5 Connector blocks 6 Cable clips 7 Circuit tester for tracing faults 8 Plug fuses 9 Fuse wire • • G e e Wire types and appropriate uses Flex – for connecting appli- ances to the wiring – has either two or three conductors, all e insulated: brown for live, blue for neutral, and green-yellow for earth. Two-core flex is for wiring appliances without an earth terminal, such as non- metallic light fittings. Always use three-core flex where an earth connection is required. From top 1 Bell wire 2 Flat 2- core flex 3 Round 2-core flex 4 Fabric/rubber-covered 3-core flex 53-core flex

How wiring works nowing how electricity works makes understanding your wiring system easier. In a sense, electricity flows between two points, like water through a pipe. The force of flowing water can provide the power to make things work- to turn a waterwheel, for example. So does electricity, creating light and heat when it passes through a lamp, or rotation in an electric motor. In each case, what causes the flow is a difference in pressure between the two points. Electricity can provide power only if it has a circuit to flow around. In the home, the circuit starts at the incoming supply cable, which contains two conducting cores. Think of the electricity as entering your home via the “live” core and leaving via the “neutral”, or phase, core. Each wiring circuit is tapped off the incoming supply, and reconnected to the returning neutral core when its work is done. Electricity can escape from its circuit, so if you touch a live conductor electricity passes through your body to earth. This is why the wiring system is connected to earth, so that current can flow away safely if anything goes wrong. :

Basic Circuits: lighting Lighting circuits are wired radially, the 1 rnrn? cable starting at the 5-amp fuse or miniature circuit breaker fMCB), running to each lighting point and terminating at the most remote one. There are two wiring systems: Loop-in circuits The cable loops from one lighting point to the next, with each switch cable wired into its ceiling rose or fitting. Roses have three sets of terminals. The live cores on the circuit and switch cables all connect to the centre bank. The circuit cables’ neutral cores go to one of the outside terminals, as does the neutral core of the flex to the light fitting. The neutral core of the switch cable ftagged with red tape for identification) is connected to the other outside terminal, as is the live flex core, so that operating the switch breaks the flow of current to the light but does not interrupt the supply to the next rose in the circuit. There is a separate fourth terminal for the earth cores of both cables. Junction-box circuits The cable runs from box to box, at each one connecting to the light, with another cable running to the switch. Each box contains four terminals, wired as in a loop-in rose: the circuit and switch cable live cores to the first terminal, the switch neutral and light cable live cores to the second, the remaining neutrals to the third and the earths to the fourth. Spurs Both loop-in and junction-box circuits may have spurs, often to feed remote lighting points.

Electrical accessories in interior designing and decoration

Jaw-type cord grips clamp on to the flex as the plug is closed up. They are simpler and more reliable than the bar- type cord grip. • Round-pin plugs, now rarely used fa unring system with round-pin sockets is probably in urgent need of replacement), usually have no fuse. • Most plugs are fitted with a bar- type cord grip. It is worth checking that these grips remain secure, as they can become loose. Some plugs are made for easy wiring, and are fitted with snap-down terminals instead of screw-down ones, which need a screwdriver. Extending flex Ideally, every electrical appliance should have a / continuous flex long enough to reach from appliance to socket. But in some situations you will want a longer flex without having to fit a completely new length to the appliance, or using an extension reel. In this case you need to join an extra length of flex to the existing one, using a special flex connector. One-part connectors are ideal for flexes that will stay in one position – supplying a standard lamp, for example.

Two-part connectors are better for portable appliances such as vacuum cleaners or powered garden tools, where you do not want to store the extra flex on the appliance. With this type, always connect the part with the pins to the flex running to the appliance. For other appliances, extend flex permanently with a one-piece connector. T iring a pendent light lex also connects pendent lampholders to heir ceiling roses. Use round PVC-sheathed we-core O.Smm2 flex without an earth, nless the lampholder is metallic, when hree-core flex with an earth must be used. For lampshades weighing more than 2kg f4Xlb), fit O.7Smm2 flex instead. Within the ceiling rose, strip back the insulation on the flex cores to allow them to be connected to the switch live and circuit neutral terminals, and loop each core over the support hook to prevent any strain on the connections.

At the lampholder, again carefully strip the cores, connect them to the lampholder terminals and loop them over the support hooks. Remember to thread the flex through the rose and lampholder cover before making the final connections. Luminaire support couplers These are special plug-and-socket connect- ors that take the place of the conventional ceiling rose. The flex from the pendent lampholder is wired to a specially designed plug that engages in the ceiling-mounted socket. This means the light can be “unplugged” at any time and taken down very easily for cleaning or repair, for example, or when the room is being redecorated. The circuit cables are connected to the socket part of the coupler in the same way as for a ceiling rose. Stripping cable sheathing OTO strip cable sheathing, either slit it with a knife or grip the earth core with pliers and pull this to split the Pvc.